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On this page we have gathered the references for all scientific information on the website. The sources are listed by webpage.

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$3.4 trillion in annual US GDP loss caused by AMR by 2050

The World Bank website. https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/health/publication/drug-resistant-infections-a-threat-to-our-economic-future

1.7 million US adults develop sepsis every year/  270,000 US adults die from sepsis every year

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website. https://www.cdc.gov/sepsis/what-is-sepsis.html

 

Antimicrobial Resistance page

5 million global deaths are associated with AMR annually

Antimicrobial Resistance Collaborators. Global burden of bacterial antimicrobial resistance in 2019: a systematic analysis. Lancet. 2022 Feb 12;399(10325):629-655. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)02724-0.

10 million global deaths will be associated with AMR by 2050

O’Neill J. Review on Antimicrobial Resistance Antimicrobial Resistance: Tackling a crisis for the health and wealth of nations. London: Review on Antimicrobial Resistance; 2014. https://amr-review.org/sites/default/files/AMR%20Review%20Paper%20-%20Tackling%20a%20crisis%20for%20the%20health%20and%20wealth%20of%20nations_1.pdf

1 in 5 deaths from AMR are children

Antimicrobial Resistance Collaborators. Global burden of bacterial antimicrobial resistance in 2019: a systematic analysis. Lancet. 2022 Feb 12;399(10325):629-655. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)02724-0.

What is antimicrobial stewardship?

Promoting antimicrobial stewardship to tackle antimicrobial resistance, from the WHO: https://www.who.int/europe/activities/promoting-antimicrobial-stewardship-to-tackle-antimicrobial-resistance

Antimicrobial resistance infographic

Reygaert WC. An overview of the antimicrobial resistance mechanisms of bacteria. AIMS Microbiol. 2018 Jun 26;4(3):482-501. doi: 10.3934/microbiol.2018.3.482. PMID: 31294229; PMCID: PMC6604941.

Sepsis page

The history of Sepsis with Homer and Hippocrates

Geroulanos, S., Douka, E.T. Historical perspective of the word “sepsis”. Intensive Care Med 32, 2077 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00134-006-0392-2

Sepsis is caused by an underlying infection causing hyperinflammation

Singer, M. et al. The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3). JAMA 315, 801-810 (2016). https://doi.org:10.1001/jama.2016.0287

40% of sepsis patients suffer long term effects

Nutbeam T, Daniels R on behalf of the UK Sepsis Trust, The Sepsis Manual (AOMRC version). Available at sepsistrust.org/professional-resources/education-resources/

1/3 of sepsis patients are re-hospitalized within 90 days from discharge

Chang, D. W., Tseng, C. H. & Shapiro, M. F. Rehospitalizations Following Sepsis: Common and Costly. Crit Care Med 43, 2085-2093 (2015). https://doi.org:10.1097/CCM.0000000000001159

There are 50 million sepsis cases worldwide every year, 11 million deaths. Half of sepsis cases are children – equivalent to 2.9 million deaths

Rudd, K. E. et al. Global, regional, and national sepsis incidence and mortality, 1990–2017: analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study. The Lancet 395, 200-211 (2020). https://doi. org:10.1016/s0140-6736(19)32989-7

$60 billion is spent in US hospitals every year for the treatment of sepsis

Sepsis Alliance. www.sepsis.org. 2024.

$32,000 is the cost of sepsis per patient

Arefian, H. et al. Hospital-related cost of sepsis: A systematic review. J Infect 74, 107-117 (2017). https://doi. org:10.1016/j.jinf.2016.11.006

The incidence of sepsis rises by 13% every year

Gaieski, David F. MD1; Edwards, J. Matthew MD1; Kallan, Michael J. MS2; Carr, Brendan G. MD, MA, MS1,3. Benchmarking the Incidence and Mortality of Severe Sepsis in the United States*. Critical Care Medicine 41(5):p 1167-1174, May 2013. DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e31827c09f8

Sepsis kills more people every year than cancer and aids combined

Our World in Data website. https://ourworldindata.org/cancer

Our World in Data website. https://ourworldindata.org/hiv-aids

Sepsis is a time-sensitive condition that demands immediate attention. Mortality increases with delayed treatment

Kumar, A. et al. Duration of hypotension before initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is the critical determinant of survival in human septic shock. Crit Care Med 34, 1589-1596 (2006). https://doi.org:10.1097/01.CCM.0000217961.75225.E9

Septic shock mortality exceeds 40%

Singer, M. et al. The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3). JAMA 315, 801-810 (2016). https://doi.org:10.1001/jama.2016.0287

Timely treatment is needed when treating patients with sepsis and septic shock

Ferrer, R. et al. Empiric antibiotic treatment reduces mortality in severe sepsis and septic shock from the first hour: results from a guideline-based performance improvement program. Crit Care Med 42, 1749-1755 (2014). https://doi.org:10.1097/CCM.0000000000000330

Conventional AST methods take upwards of 48 hours

Gajic, I. et al. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: A Comprehensive Review of Currently Used Methods. Antibiotics (Basel) 11 (2022). https://doi.org:10.3390/antibiotics11040427